Bottle Jaw in Goats (Hypoproteinemia)

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Bottle Jaw in Goats

Bottle Jaw (Hypoproteinemia) is a swelling under the chin, due to accumulation of fluid under the jaw, giving it a swollen bottle-shaped appearance.

Causes:

Main causes of bottle jaw in goats are by stomach worms, called barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortus).

Some by Liver Flukes.

 Symptoms:

  • The most common clinical signs are failure to thrive and weight loss.
  • As worm burdens increase, more severe signs, such as anemia (paleness around the eyes (FAMACHA test), inside the mouth, or inside the edge of the rectum or vagina), a, under the chin (bottle jaw), weakness, and collapse, may develop.
  • contortus does not usually cause diarrhea.
  • Death may occur within 1 week of heavy infection without significant signs.

Treatment:

The principles involve:

  • Pasture management,
  • Strategic de-worming,
  • Avoiding anthelmintic resistance by using de-wormers that result in >90% fecal egg count reduction.
    • Deworming, Coordination with other methods of control, such as alternate or mixed grazing with different host species, integrated rotational grazing of different age groups within a single host species (including creep grazing), inclusion of tannin-rich forages in pasture, and alternation of grazing and cropping, are other management techniques that can help to provide safe pasture and give economic advantage when combined with anthelmintic treatment.
  • B12 Injections
  • Provide green leaves, alfalfa hay, and high protein pelleted goat feed to help rebuild red blood cells

Prevention:

  • It should be assumed that worms cannot be eradicated but infections can be limited to the extent that they will not cause economic loss to the producer.
  • Ideally, pastures should not have been grazed by goats or sheep for at least six months. Pastures in which cattle or horses have grazed are a better choice. Other good pasture management includes fields which have been rotated with row crops or newly planted or renovated fields.
  • Prevention of resistance by:
    • Appropriate route of anthelmintic products administration.
    • Sufficient dose of anthelmintic products.
    • Using effective compound.
    • Preventing re-infection process by deworming animals and returning them to clean pasture.
    • Perform FAMACHA test to find the degree of anemia and treat only goats of in critical need of treatment.

References:

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